In the Netherlands, the sovereign nations of the world would know the weight of the Brazilian delegate at the Second Peace Conference.
During 1907, the prospect of a world war demanded immediate conference with the participation of all sovereign governments of the world to create a consciousness for disarmament. The call was made by Queen of the Netherlands and by Czar of Russia, and at that time Brazil was dependent on the U.S., no international importance, only submission to the North American country.
Afonso Pena, after assuming the Republic presidency, he spoke about Brazil’s participation at the Peace Conference in the Hague, Netherlands. Under pressure from the newspaper Correio da Manha and manifestation of the people, the Baron of Rio Branco, Minister of Foreign Affairs, who suggested the name of Joaquim Nabuco, accepts Rui (Ruy) Barbosa, who by presidential decree is appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary as delegate of Brazil at the Peace Conference.
In the discussions, Rui was initially considered impertinent and pretentious, but he was lord of vast erudition and owner of a faultless logic, and aroused the admiration and respect of all participants. He employed the same line of thought in their theses, which was structured in the conclusions of the Third Pan American Conference held in 1906, in Rio de Janeiro – “Rejection the hegemony of the United States of America in international politics.”
On July 12, as climax, confronting De Martens, president of a committee, Rui Barbosa, unexpectedly, in French, surprised the Russian representative with a retort against of banning political affairs at the conference. At the event, Brown-Scott, American delegate, said: “This is the new world that is heard by the old.” In bold action, before the representatives of the major powers – Britain, the United States and Germany – who advocated the formation of a Court of Arbitration composed of the strongest countries, the Brazilian delegate replied that the choice of nations given criteria structured on military power would lead to a arms race and created a deadlock in the discussions by presenting the thesis that, given the international legal order, all states are equal and sovereign.
The international repercussions of the Brazilian performance was so great that the diplomats of the others countries, returning from Netherlands, spread the news about the success of Rui Barbosa. Georges Clemanceau, the French Minister, said: “Humanitarian idealistic, eloquent in the extreme, finally jurist Hague, on top of many virtues.” The London newspaper, The Times, compared him to Talleyrand, French diplomat present at the Congress Vienna in 1814: “The speeches of Rui Barbosa contained expressions worthy of a Talleyrand.”
In December 1907, the Brazilian people, demonstrating the most of your pride and love, dedicated to his hero, who returned victorious from the Netherlands, the title of “The Eagle of The Hague.”
As an example for all Brazilians who have not become aware of the greatness of their country, look what Rui Barbosa left written to knowledge of future generations: “I saw all the nations of the world together, and I learned not to be ashamed of mine. Measuring from close the big and strong countries, I found them smaller and weaker than justice and right.